Infertility can affect couples who have never had biological children (primary infertility), as well as couples who already have at least one biological child but are presently having difficulty conceiving (secondary infertility).
Most couples don't conceive immediately. There is about a 20% chance of pregnancy the first month, and about an 85% chance within six months. A physician will generally initiate a medical evaluation only if a couple haven't conceived after one year of trying, or, for women over 35, after six months.
The standard procedures involved in infertility diagnosis have halachic implications which should be discussed in advance with a rabbi.
This section includes halachic and medical information on the evaluation of infertility.